CEEDAR - Utilize evidence-based practices for writing instruction.
National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) - Explore council books, journals, meetings and other online resources to provide professional support.
- NCTE Guideline - Find professional knowledge for teaching writing.
NCTE on What Works in Writing Instruction - Read a chapter on writing strategies.
What Works Clearinghouse Practice Guide: Teaching Elementary School Students to be Effective Writers - Provides four recommendations for improving elementary students’ writing.
What Works Clearinghouse Practice Guide: Teaching Secondary Students to Write Effectively - Presents three evidence-based recommendations for helping students, Grades 6–12, develop effective writing skills.
Writing Next - Find effective strategies to improve the writing of adolescents in middle and high school.
Writing to Read - Provides evidence for how writing can improve reading.
Reading, Writing, and Mentor Texts: Imagining Possibilities - Discusses ways mentor texts support writers and inspire all writing genres in the classroom and beyond.
Using Mentor Texts to Motivate and Support Student Writers - Tell students and show what the expectation is for their writing.
Write Alouds - Use modeled writing to provide authentic explanations for students, demonstrating how writers construct various kinds of texts.
Claims, Evidence and Reasoning (CER) Model - Explains the CER model to get to an explanation and the importance of explicitly teaching it to students.
Real-World Writing: A Strategy for Developing Ideas - Use this strategy developed by author Kelly Gallagher to enable students to learn transitions within a paper, research and inquiry strategies, and reflective writing.
RAFT Writing Strategy Guide - Introduces the RAFT technique and offers practical ideas for using this technique to teach students to experiment with various perspectives in their writing.
Best Practice: Bringing Standards to Life in America’s Classrooms - Find recommendations on teaching writing (pgs. 38 - 65).
Modes, Genres, and Formats in the Common Core - Clarifies the differences between these terms.
The National Writing Project - Links to instructional resources for teaching writing.
The National Writing Project: 30 Ideas for Teaching Writing - Offers writing teachers succinct, practice-based resources.
The Reading and Writing Project - Watch videos to support the teaching of writing.
Teaching Elementary School Students to Be Effective Writers - Provides four recommendations for improving elementary students' writing, including implementation steps and solutions for common roadblocks.
Teaching K-5 Students to Write for Different Purposes - Help students become effective writers across genres by providing opportunities to practice the writing process for various contexts and purposes and by scaffolding their emerging skills.
WestEd: Scaffolding Writing Through the Teaching and Learning Cycle - Pamela Spycher of Leading with Learning at WestEd shares what happened when one team of teachers implemented TLC in their classrooms; defines scaffolding, and explains what it entails; describes how the language in different genres (or text types) works and provides concrete strategies for scaffolding writing through the five TLC stages.
Developing Evidence-Based Arguments from Texts - Provides teachers with strategies for helping students understand the differences between persuasive writing and evidence-based argumentation.
Instructional Considerations for Text-Based Writing - Offers evidence-based guidance as teachers plan for and provide instruction on text-based writing.
6 + 1 Traits
6 + 1 Traits Writing Model - Utilize a way of teaching, modeling, and assessing the instruction of writing.
Crosswalk Between CCSS and 6+1 Traits - Access a set of crosswalk documents to assist in understanding the relationship between the expectations in the CCSS and elements of the 6+1 Trait Writing model.
Writing Across the Curriculum
Argument Writing Across the Content Areas - Discover key instruction for teaching argument writing.
A Range of Writing Across the Content Areas - Teach students to write for a variety of purposes to a variety of audiences, including in mathematics, science, and social studies.
The WAC Clearinghouse - Offers examples of writing-to-learn activities.
Writing Across the Curriculum Resource Binder - Find activities that help students discover connections, discern processes, raise questions and discover solutions.
Writing to Learn
Low-Stakes Writing: Writing to Learn, Not Learning to Write - Use low-stakes writing to scaffold instruction, develop student voice, and foster critical thinkers.
Vermont Writing Collaborative - Find resources that promote Writing for Understanding, including a collection of Projects and Resources and Teacher Planners.
Build Hopeful Secondary School Writers Through Effective Feedback Strategies - Shares effective strategies for providing secondary students meaningful feedback on their writing.
Facilitative Feedback - Utilize responses that help writers to discover ideas and strategies for improving their writing.
Responding to Student Writing - Read about the myths and examples of strong feedback.
Scoring and Analyzing Student Work
Calibration Protocol for Scoring Student Work - Provides a process that groups of educators can use to discuss student work in order to reach a consensus about how to score it based on rubric/scoring criteria.
A Formative Assessment System for Writing Improvement - Asserts that teachers can make better use of instructional time focusing on formative assessment systems than by providing feedback.
Informing Writing - Provides research on the benefits of formative assessment in a report from the Carnegie Corporation of New York.
Student Work Analysis Protocol - Provides a process that groups of educators can use to discuss and analyze student work to inform the next instructional steps.
6+1 Trait Rubrics Aligned to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS)
CCSS Samples of Student Writing, Scored With a 6+1 Trait Rubric
The Literacy Design Collaborative (LDC) - Offers CCSS-aligned writing rubrics. Sign up for a free CoreTools account and access the rubrics and student work samples under the Resources tab.
Appendix C: CCSS Student Writing Examples - Illustrates the work that all student writers should regularly produce and with independence.
Grades K-12 Annotated Student Writing Samples - Provides annotated student writing samples that illustrate the integration of content understanding and writing in the three types of writing expected by the CCSS.