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# Grade 8 | Mathematics (Essential Elements)

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Note: The Iowa Core Essential Elements are intended only for students with significant cognitive disabilities and who participate in alternate assessments.

## The Number System (EE.8.NS)

### Know that there are numbers that are not rational, and approximate them by rational numbers. (EE.8.NS.A)

1. Subtract fractions with like denominators (halves, thirds, fourths, and tenths) with minuends less than or equal to one. (EE.8.NS.A.1)
2. (EE.8.NS.A.2)
1. Express a fraction with a denominator of 100 as a decimal (EE.8.NS.A.2.a).
2. Compare quantities represented as decimals in real-world examples to hundredths (EE.8.NS.A.2.b).

## Expressions and Equations (EE.8.EE)

### Work with radicals and integer exponents. (EE.8.EE.A)

1. Identify the meaning of an exponent (limited to exponents of 2 and 3). (EE.8.EE.A.1)
2. Identify a geometric sequence of whole numbers with a whole number common ratio. (EE.8.EE.A.2)
3. Compose and decompose whole numbers up to 999. (EE.8.EE.A.3)
4. Compose and decompose whole numbers up to 999. (EE.8.EE.A.4)

### Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations. (EE.8.EE.B)

1. Graph a simple ratio by connecting the origin to a point representing the ratio in the form of y/x. For example, when given a ratio in standard form (2:1), convert to 2/1, and plot the point (1,2). (EE.8.EE.B.5)
2. Graph a simple ratio by connecting the origin to a point representing the ratio in the form of y/x. For example, when given a ratio in standard form (2:1), convert to 2/1, and plot the point (1,2). (EE.8.EE.B.6)

### Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations. (EE.8.EE.C)

1. Solve simple algebraic equations with one variable using addition and subtraction. (EE.8.EE.C.7)
2. Not applicable. See EE.8.EE.5-6. (EE.8.EE.C.8)

## Functions (EE.8.F)

### Define, evaluate, and compare functions. (EE.8.F.A)

1. Given a function table containing at least 2 complete ordered pairs, identify a missing number that completes another ordered pair (limited to linear functions). (EE.8.F.A.1)
2. Given a function table containing at least 2 complete ordered pairs, identify a missing number that completes another ordered pair (limited to linear functions). (EE.8.F.A.2)
3. Given a function table containing at least 2 complete ordered pairs, identify a missing number that completes another ordered pair (limited to linear functions). (EE.8.F.A.3)

### Use functions to model relationships between quantities. (EE.8.F.B)

1. Determine the values or rule of a function using a graph or a table. (EE.8.F.B.4)
2. Describe how a graph represents a relationship between two quantities. (EE.8.F.B.5)

## Geometry (EE.8.G)

### Understand congruence and similarity using physical models, transparencies, or geometry software. (EE.8.G.A)

1. Recognize translations, rotations, and reflections of shapes. (EE.8.G.A.1)
2. Identify shapes that are congruent. (EE.8.G.A.2)
3. Not applicable. (EE.8.G.A.3)
4. Identify similar shapes with and without rotation. (EE.8.G.A.4)
5. Compare any angle to a right angle, and describe the angle as greater than, less than, or congruent to a right angle. (EE.8.G.A.5)

### Understand and apply the Pythagorean Theorem. (EE.8.G.B)

1. Not applicable. (EE.8.G.B.6)
2. Not applicable. (EE.8.G.B.7)
3. Not applicable. (EE.8.G.B.8)

### Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving volume of cylinders, cones, and spheres. (EE.8.G.C)

1. Use the formulas for perimeter, area, and volume to solve real-world and mathematical problems (limited to perimeter and area of rectangles and volume of rectangular prisms). (EE.8.G.C.9)

## Statistics and Probability (EE.8.SP)

### Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data. (EE.8.SP.A)

1. Not applicable. (EE.8.SP.A.1)
2. Not applicable. See EE.10.S-ID.1–2 and EE.10.S-ID.3. (EE.8.SP.A.2)
3. Not applicable. (EE.8.SP.A.3)
4. Construct a graph or table from given categorical data, and compare data categorized in the graph or table. (EE.8.SP.A.4)